By Lynn V. Foster

A quick background of principal the USA, moment variation explores the background of the imperative American isthmus from the pre-Columbian cultures to the modern countries that make up the zone this day: Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Panama. This moment version brings the background of the area brand new with new advancements, together with fresh elections, the ongoing fight with the aftermath of the civil wars, and the influence of the loose exchange contract signed with the USA in 2003/2004.

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Mesoamericans elevated the shaman to a sacred ruler who not only spoke with the gods, but also descended from them. Mesoamerican shaman-rulers can be found depicted in Olmec art with a combination of human characteristics and jaguar features, an animal 18 THE LAND AND ITS FIRST PEOPLES times they warred with each other, other times they formed alliances and intermarried. Throughout the shifting relationships, some regions rose into prominence while others declined. The Aztecs, the best known of all Mesoamericans, probably because they were flourishing at the time of the Spanish conquest, would be the final manifestation of this civilization (SEE chronology, appendix 8).

Whether they represent the only kinds of books the Mayans wrote or are actually a distorted sample is hard to say. Many books have been lost—many burned by zealous Catholic friars, others disintegrated from age. Some manuscripts have been discovered in tombs, reduced to pulp by humidity and time. A few books continued to be used after the conquest, eventually becoming part of an oral tradition or rewritten in Latin script, an easier form of writing than the hieroglyphs with their hundreds of symbols.

A few books continued to be used after the conquest, eventually becoming part of an oral tradition or rewritten in Latin script, an easier form of writing than the hieroglyphs with their hundreds of symbols. These books, among them the Quiché Mayan Popol Vuh, survive, corrupted by the centuries of cultural change, but nonetheless consistent with the myths of creation and political founding, with the sacred cycles of time and divinations that are found in Classic period hieroglyphs and art. Despite the cultural disruption that followed the Spanish conquest, Mayan respect for the word has survived here and there, among people who for centuries were kept basically illiterate.

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