By Andreas Kirschkamp, Prof. Dr. Utz Schäffer

Organizations have to establish dangers and probabilities of environmental alterations so that it will adapt to or most likely even to steer them. Early caution which includes scanning and interpretation performs a major function during this method. while the conventional contingency process considers early caution as part of the organizational constitution, the prolonged contingency concept assumes the extra effect of an individual’s character on early caution.

Andreas Kirschkamp empirically analyses the early caution habit of leader government officials in German medium-sized businesses. First, he provides the layout variables of early caution, then the influencing contingency variables. at the foundation of the scholarly study on mental and contingency idea, the writer deduces hypotheses and checks them. the consequences convey that early caution habit is not just encouraged via conventional contingency variables but in addition through own attitudes. hence, the writer proposes combining the prolonged contingency thought with the normal contingency theory.

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In the context of this work the first point is especially looked at. Time to Complete Response (t 1 ) Time to Unacceptable Loss (t 2 ) Normal Response Threat No. 1 A Crash Response Threat No. 2 State of Firm State of Threat Figure 7: Unprepared Self Aware Sense of Threat Environmental Aware Internally Flexible Sourceof Threat Externally Flexible Threat Concrete Internally Ready Response Concrete Action Launched Outcome Concrete Optimal Responses to Environmental Threats 119 Although ANSOFF’s theory was widely accepted, it was criticized, too.

170 Although new trends are first perceived and interpreted by the individual, 171 the distributive process within the 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 Liu’s strategic scanning-relating learning cycle is similar to this model. The only difference is the disjuncture of scanning into sensing and perception. See Liu (1998), p. 301. See Daft and Weick (1984), p. 286. Milliken (1990), p. 43. See Daft and Weick (1984), p. 293. See for example Kim (2001), p. 20 and Huber (1991), p. 102. These two steps can also be considered as learning about the environment.

237 This notion attitude comprises individual differences such as traits, beliefs and values. 238 For example, MILLER stresses the importance of managerial attitudes and considers them as an important contingency which together with the traditional contingency variables determine the organizational structure. “240 They focused on a single CEO’s attitude. “ 241 Their hypothesis was that chief executives with high need for achievement want to control the organization and therefore tend to prefer a high degree of centralization, formalization and horizontal coordination.

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