By W. T. Jones, Robert J. Fogelin

A historical past OF WESTERN PHILOSOPHY examines the character of philosophical company and philosophy's function in Western tradition. Jones and Fogelin weave key passages from vintage philosophy works into their reviews and criticisms, giving A heritage OF WESTERN PHILOSOPHY the mixed merits of a resource e-book and textbook. The textual content concentrates on significant figures in each one old interval, combining exposition with direct quotations from the philosophers themselves. The textual content locations philosophers in acceptable cultural context and indicates how their theories mirror the troubles in their occasions.

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At this time, they were making about 55 percent annually on their investments"— M. M. Knight, H. E. Barnes, F. Flugel, Economic History of Europe (Houghton Mifflin, Boston, 1928), p. 322. 11 12 RENAISSANCE The capitalist5 who put up the money to finance a voyage to the Indies expected three-fourths of the profits, whereas the adventurer who conducted the voyage received one-fourth. 6 In this way, new fortunes were rapidly created—in itself a startling development in a society in which power had hitherto rested in land and in arms.

111 Most men are moved by passion rather than by reason, and one of the greatest of the passions that move them is ambition. It is ... so powerful in the hearts of men that it never leaves them, no matter to what height they may rise. The reason of this is that nature has created men so that they desire everything, but are unable to attain it; desire being thus always greater than the faculty of acquiring, discontent with what they have and dissatisfaction with themselves result from it. 11 For the rest, Machiavelli held that men are moved by fear and envy, by desire for novelty, by love of wealth, by hatred of any kind of restriction on their activities, and by a desire for security.

Dante did no more than free the secular power from ecclesiastical dominion. He left the two powers equal under God, each sovereign in its own sphere. But how were the two spheres to be distinguished? Dante said only that the secular power was concerned with "those things which are measured by time," but this, certainly, is not very helpful. Since, in the world of politics, things temporal and things spiritual interpenetrate, a solution based on the distinction between time and eternity collapses as soon as it gets down to particulars.

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