By F.G.A. Stone, Robert West (Eds.)
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Somatostatin used to be found in 1971, by way of Guillemin and his colleagues in the course of their look for the hypothalamic development hormone-releasing issue. A peptide used to be present in ovine hypothalamus which inhibited the discharge of progress hormone from cultured anterior pituitary cells. 1,2 choice three of its amino acid series indicated that it used to be a tetradecapeptide with a molecular weight of 1639 (Figure lJ.
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Extra resources for Advances in Organometallic Chemistry, Vol. 17: Catalysis and Organic Syntheses
These substrates respond most dramatically to variations in reaction conditions with cobalt and with rhodium catalysis; both a- and p-isomers may be obtained in very high specificity. y Hs CH,=C-COOCH, + CO + yH3 CH,C-COC€H3 H,- + I CHO (Y FH3 CH,-CH-COOCH3 I C HO ( 29) -isomer 0 -isomer (9) (10) One of the most interesting observations is that the a-isomer (9) contains a quaternary carbon atom attached to the formyl group, which is a violation of the rule of Keulemans (49). It must be that electronic effects are dominant for this type of substrate, particularly when the effects of phosphine-modified rhodium systems are considered (vide infra).
90°C; pressure, 80-100 psi. addition to affording improved isomer ratios, the reaction proceeded under conditions of temperature which were much milder than those effective with cobalt or even phosphine-modified cobalt catalysts. The halide complex RhCl(CO)(PPh,), was effective as a catalyst at temperatures >60°C and pressures of CO/H, > 20 atm (24). However, with such halide complexes an inhibition period was always observed which could be eliminated by addition of a base such as triethylamine.
The percent of n-aldehyde rose rapidly as the carbon monoxide partial pressure was increased up to 30-40 atm CO; further increase had little effect. 1-Pentene clearly gave a higher percentage of straight-chain aldehyde than 2-pentene, but the difference was insignificant in the lower P c o experiments. The hydrogen partial pressure has a small but reproducible effect on the hydroformylation product composition. The direction of the change found was the same as for carbon monoxide partial pressures: the experiments gave higher percentages of n-aldehyde.