By Haboush W., Parshall B. (eds.)

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Extra resources for Algebraic Groups and Their Generalizations: Quantum and Infinite-Dimensional Methods, Part 2

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1991; unfortunately, no conjugate quantitation). , 1989). , 1991). , 1992). Unlike Mg2+, Mn 2+ inhibits programming for lysis (Gately and Martz, 1981). Ca 2+ cannot substitute for Mg2+ in supporting CTL-target adhesion. In the presence of severalmillimolar Mg2+ (physiologic), Ca 2+ affects neither the rate nor the extent of adhesion (Martz, 1980). When Mg2+ is suboptimal, however, Ca 2+ synergizes dramatically with Mg2+ (Martz, 1980; Rothlein and Springer, 1986). Thus, in the absence of Ca 2+ (presence of EGTA), the concentration of Mg2+ required for half-maximal adhesion is about 300 flM, but in the presence of 50 flM Ca2 +, this drops more than tenfold (Martz, 1977, 1980).

Moreover, a substantial portion of CTL lytic activity is calciumindependent, while neither the secretion nor the assembly of perforin in target cell membranes occurs appreciably in the absence of calcium. 3. , 1988). Finally, CTL induce prelytic DNA fragmentation in many types of target cells, while neither perforin nor complement do so. ) It is clear that CTL may employ more than one mechanism of lysis, and that at least one mechanism is calciumindependent. , 1991). , 1991). Perhaps the best candidate for a mediator of calcium-independent lysis is ATP.

Possibly small leaks form early and gradually progress to larger leaks (as 86Rb+ and nicotinamide suggest); alternatively, the membrane may remain relatively intact until a sudden collapse and lysis (in which case 86Rb+ release is a physiologic response and nicotinamide is somehow unique). , Martz, 1977). , 1988). , 1982b), and certain calcium antagonists, including Mn2 + (Gately and Martz, 1981), verapamil (Tirosh and Berke, 1985; Howell and Martz, 1988), and ruthenium red (Howell and Martz, 1988).

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