By Khaled Fahmy

Whereas scholarship has generally seen Mehmed Ali Pasha because the founding father of glossy Egypt, Khaled Fahmy bargains a brand new interpretation of his position within the upward push of Egyptian nationalism, firmly finding him in the Ottoman context as an bold, if not easy, Ottoman reformer. Basing his paintings on formerly overlooked archival fabric, the writer demonstrates how Mehmed Ali sought to advance the Egyptian economic climate and to accumulate the military, now not as a way of gaining Egyptian independence from the Ottoman empire, yet to extra his personal pursuits for famous hereditary rule over the province. by way of targeting the military and the soldier’s day-by-day studies, the writer constructs an in depth photo of makes an attempt at modernization and reform, how they have been deliberate and applied by way of quite a few reformers, and the way the general public at huge understood and accommodated them. during this means, the paintings contributes to the bigger methodological and theoretical debates relating nation-building and the development of kingdom energy within the specific context of early nineteenth-century Egypt.

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Having assumed that the army taught those innocent and naive peasants the essential truths of the nation, its unadulterated personality and their umbilical attachment to it, the nationalist argument proceeds with a second assumption, namely, that any problems that this army faced were not the result of "any shortcomings on the part of Egyptians," but were due to "external" malice and conspiracy. In this sense, the failure of Mehmed Ali's entire "experiment" and not only his military establishment, was the result of British machinations aimed at frustrating the Egyptian nation's attempts at development, independence and dignity.

Would only speak Turkish [and adding that] to deny that [he was an Ottoman] would be a denial of his roots and being,"60 she still concludes that his policies "inevitably put Egypt on the path of independent statehood and self-recognition as having a separate identity distinct from other Muslims and Ottomans . . "61 Realizing that Mehmed Ali had "foreign" origins that might have compromised his position as a leader of an Egypt that is otherwise assumed to be ethnically pure and uniform, Marsot attempts to resolve this apparent contradiction by resorting to the argument that the personality of Ibrahim Pasha (the Pasha's eldest son) complemented that of his father in this respect.

And listening to your imploring plea. " I saw him descending on you stretching his arms wide open and you threw yourself into his embrace, with a trembling heart and overflowing yearning, as if this embrace would last forever. He disappeared in you and you in him and together you became one indivisible person. Can anyone mention Cairo without the phantom of Mehmed Ali leaping to his mind? 38 This is how Mahmud Taymur, the famous Egyptian novelist, commemorated the centenary of Mehmed Ali's death.

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