By Al Behr, Vi Cherian and TS Mwamwenda (Auth.)

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Anatomically, the cerebellum is similar to the cerebrum, with an exterior (cortex) of grey matter and an interior of white matter. The cerebellum is the main centre for the control of motor activities (movement), as well as bodily balance and posture. It is served by the pons, which is a kind of relay station between the cerebellum and the cerebrum. The medulla, which merges into the spinal cord, contains the nerve centres for the control of the vital functions of breathing and heart beat; it also relays sensory impulses to the higher brain centres.

He stretches out his hands (motor activity) to get a closer look, becomes more interested in it, pays attention to it and grabs hold of it. 2 Definitions of learning Most psychologists (eg Lovell 1969: 125) generally agree that learning is a more or less permanent change in behaviour which results from activity, observation or training. The key phrase in this definition is 'permanent change in behaviour'. The words 'permanent change' are important because there are many changes which are transient or temporary, which have nothing to do with learning and should not be confused with it.

A pupil who gets his sums right and is rewarded by praise will feel satisfied and develop a liking for arithmetic, whereas a pupil who is punished or scolded for getting his sums wrong will develop a dislike for arithmetic (law of effect). A pupil is not ready to learn multiplication before he has mastered addition (law of readiness). On the other hand, the more they are practised the better the multiplication tables are known (law of exercise). 2 Respondent conditioning IP Pavlov (1849 - 1936), a Russian physiologist, proposed the theory of learning by respondent conditioning as a result of his experiments with dogs.

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