By Susan T. Fiske, Daniel L. Schacter, Carolyn Zahn-Waxler

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Role of Anger . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Interventions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 40 40 41 43 43 43 44 44 45 INTRODUCTION In its most extreme forms, aggression is human tragedy unsurpassed. Hopes that the horrors of World War II and the Holocaust would produce a worldwide revulsion against killing have been dashed. Since World War II, homicide rates have actually increased rather than decreased in a number of industrialized countries, most notably the United States.

This general model has at least four advantages over smaller domain theories. First, it is more parsimonious than the set of existing mini-theories. , both instrumental and affect-based aggression (Bushman & Anderson 2001). Third, it will aid in the development of more comprehensive interventions designed to treat individuals who are chronically aggressive; many current treatment attempts fail because they focus on only one specific type of aggression or use only one mini-theoretical approach to treatment (Tate et al.

Hot temperatures, loud noises, unpleasant odors) increase aggression (Berkowitz 1993). , Berkowitz et al. 1981). General discomfort, such as that produced by sitting in a hot room, can also increase aggression; this effect appears to be mediated primarily by increasing negative affect, though there may be cognitive and arousal processes at work too (Anderson et al. 2000). DRUGS Various drugs such as alcohol and caffeine can also increase aggression (Bushman 1993). , provocation, frustration, aggressive cues) have a much stronger effect on people who are under the influence of drugs than on people who are not.

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