By Bernard / Vogel, Petra M. Comrie

The heritage of observe type learn is characterised via severe positions. as much as the nineteenth century, it used to be believed that note periods have been perpetually of the Latin or Greek sort and common. not like that, within the twentieth century, the view prevailed that each language had its personal particular and certain observe category procedure. within the final many years, although, it has develop into obvious that regardless of the massive variety of observe periods and observe type structures there are typological regulations in regards to the conceptualization of semantic positive factors and morphosyntactic constructions. this article techniques be aware periods and their categorial manifestations from the point of view of typology and language universals study. The authors during this quantity speak about notice type categorization normally (Part I), in addition to notice sessions and be aware type structures of person languages (Part II) from a typological-universal perspective and from diachronic and cross-linguistic views

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21 22 Jan Anward 9. 1. Inflectional elaboration As Hopper—Thompson (1984) show, expressions for event in predicate function and expressions for person/thing in term function are' loci for inflectional elaboration. Nominal morphology—inflection for definiteness, number, gender, case, and possessor agreement—is maximally elaborated on expressions for person/thing in term function, and verbal morphology—inflection for fmiteness, tense, mood, aspect, subject agreement, and object agreement—is maximally elaborated on expressions for event in predicate function.

There are also cases such as Joan wrote the book hungry, where a dependent expresses an additional predication about the subject or object of its head. In this case, functional composition results in a conjoined predicate: 'wrote(x, the-book) &. hungry(x)'. Obviously, then, we need a third move of syntagmatic expansion: H Syntagmatic expansion Construe an expression in predicate function with a dependent predicate expression. 3. Functional licensing As pointed out by Jespersen (1924), part-of-speech distinctions are licensed only by "shallow" positions in a sentence: predicate, subject/object, adverbial, attribute in main clauses.

These idealised languages would also show to the maximum the correlatable characteristics for the word classes that they possess. 2. Adjectives as nominal modifiers The possibility of correlating the presence (or absence) of a particular word class with the presence (or absence) of a specific sentential function can be illustrated by examining the occurrence (or non-occurrence) of adjectives as a distinct word class in various languages. It is generally conceded that there do occur some languages in which adjectives do not form a distinct word class.

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